The Uganda Police Force was established in 1906 by the British Colonial government as a Para-military Force called the Uganda Armed Constabulary. Its primary duty was to quell riots and unrest.
Prior to its introduction, pre-colonial Uganda societies were responsible for keeping Law and Order as a collective responsibility. Every tribal community had a system of social policing based on customary rules and obligations.
Uganda became a British Protectorate in 1889 and a judicial system based on the British Common law was imposed. A special commissioner was appointed to command 1,400 men. The main duties of the armed constabulary included maintaining Law and Order, Protecting official installations, and quelling riots.
On the 25th May 1906 Captain (Later Brigadier – General) W.F.S Edwards, DSO arrived in Uganda to take up the post of Inspector General of the Uganda Protectorate Police. After 1906, the Uganda Armed Constabulary was renamed Uganda Police Force.
The Police underwent many changes during the first forty years. The growth of the population, the impact of commercial life, the spread of road and rail communication and later, the upsurge of political matters, required the Uganda Police to expand their role.
By independence, Uganda had a small but effective and well motivated Police Force. The Force was considered one of the best in the south of the Sahara. It had high operational standards and professional services.
In 1986, the NRM government inherited inefficient Police Force, which was grossly undermanned, ill equipped, poorly housed. As a result, the government downsized the Force from 8,000 to 3,000 personnel. During the NRM government a number of reforms where undertaken, which included creation of teamwork, transparency in management, building capacity, promotion of partnership in crime prevention through community policing, improvement of Police discipline, fighting corruption within the Force, equipping it with the right tools, improving on transportation, etc.
Today, the UPF derives its powers and mandate from the 1995 Constitution under article 211, 212 and the Police Act.
Uganda Police mandates include:
Protect life and property
Preserve law and order
Prevent and detect crimes
Cooperate with civilian authority and other security organs established under the constitution and with the population generally
The UPF is further mandated under Section 4 of the Police Act:
Protect life, property and other rights of the individuals
To maintain security within Uganda
Enforce the laws of Uganda
Ensure public safety and order
To prevent and detect crimes in society
Subject to empowerment by police authority, to perform services of military force
To perform any other function assigned to it under the Act
The Uganda Police Force has greatly improved under the leadership of H.E Yoweri Kaguta Museveni.
Enhanced Access to Justice
In 2012, Criminal Investigations and Crime intelligence Directorate, investigated and concluded 33,657 (56.53% of the target) violent crimes which were submitted to the DPP which resulted into 8,422 convictions.
In the same year, there was an 8.2% reduction on road fatality from 2,843 in 2011 to 2,611 in 2012. This was as a result of traffic operations on drink-driving in Kampala Metropolitan area and major high ways and in partnership with the Uganda Breweries Limited.
Fire incidents decreased by 6.4% from 1,203 cases in 2011 to 1,126 cases in 2012 and rescue emergencies also reduced by 5.7% from 245 cases in 2011 to 231 cases in 2012. People killed in fire reduced from 31 in 2011 to 22 in 2012. Most fires were recorded from residential buildings at 459 followed by commercial premises at 263.
The Canine Unit tracked 5,232 suspects and arrested 2,960 (56%) of them. Arraigned 1,412 of the suspects in court and secured 224 convictions. Recovered 302 exhibits comprising of fuel, coffee, phones and other equipments. Opened new Canine units in Rubindi, Kiboga, Pallisa and Kamwenge.
ASTU in conjuction with UPDF recovered 239 heads of cattle and 18 goats out of 326 heads of cattle and 27 goats stolen in Karamoja and Katakwi. This is as a result of branding that makes it easy for the goats and cattle to be identified.
Under the wise leadership of H.E. the President and The Inspector General of Police, Gen. Kale Kayihura, Uganda Police Force has embraced community policing and this is evidenced in the reduction of crime in places where it’s fully implemented.
Community Policing is a new philosophy of policing, based on the concept that Police Officers and private citizens working together in creative ways can help solve contemporary community problems related to crime, fear of crime, social, physical disorder and neighborhood decay.
The philosophy requires that police departments develop a new relationship with the law-abiding people in the community, allowing them greater voice in setting local priorities, and involving them in efforts to improve the overall quality of life in their neighbors. It shifts focus of police work from handling random calls to solving problems.
Crime and public order issues are community related problems that cannot be addressed by a single agency. Community Policing is a way of policing that actively involves the community in policing in order to prevent, detect and reduce crime. It’s a partnership between the Police and the community.
The fundamental aim of Community Policing in Uganda is to increase public awareness in crime prevention and participation in policing through problem solving.
The original 1989 Community Policing approach has undergone many changes and improvements culminating into the current version, the Muyenga Model. Internationally community policing is recognized as a key method of police service delivery. The model is informed by collective understanding between the community and police partnership to create a safe and secure environment.
This partnership is based on:
• Community oriented policing
• Crime prevention
• Problem oriented policing
• Law enforcement
• Building trust
Pillars of the Muyenga model:
• Belief that security begins with an individual being vigilant and conscious of one’s personal security
Premises security requires owners of premises (residential or work place) to take precautions to secure their places. This entails; access control, inner security and outer ring security.
• Neighborhood watch, entails everyone being interested in ones neighbors security concerns and what goes on in the surroundings. Local councils play a vital role in mobilization of community members.
• Area zoning, means dividing areas of policing into manageable portions for easy supervision and prevention of crime.
• Profiling residents and suspected criminals
• Training crime preventers to coordinate ,sensitize and mobilise other members
• Establishing Community Security Committees under LCs at various levels.
Recruitment and linkage of crime preventers to communities
– Coordination, Co-operation and Communication linkages between Commanders and Personnel; Police officers in the field with private security guards and security committees; Crime preventers; local leaders
– Create synergies with prisons Services to tap into the prison intelligence.UPF continues to rely on community policing to prevent trans-national crimes such as terrorism, drug trafficking, theft of motor vehicles across borders and human trafficking
Many local crimes within the neighborhoods have been prevented through this approach (Intelligence information, popular vigilance).eg Muyenga registered a reduction from 125 cases to 10-25 cases per month.
UPF has trained EAPCCO Police Forces from Somalia, South Sudan, and Rwanda with Community Policing as a key topic.
Developed social welfare programmes targeting the youth against crime such as drugs, alcohol abuse, sexual offences and engaging in riotous activities.
The Muyenga Model has been replicated to many areas and is being rolled out throughout the country.
Developed and produced a handbook on Community Policing.Developing a guiding manual for the Muyenga Model for EAPCCO member states .
Embarked on training at least 20 crime preventers per village/cell in many districts.
Police and residents are developing Muyenga Com Pol Website
Community policing benefit to the Region:
Training of selected community oriented police officers from member states
• Sharing information on crime, crime trends through the website and manuals
• Development of new strategies regarding ever changing crime patterns for implementation in other countries. Sharing of best practices
• Harmonization of Community Policing models into one effective regional community policing approach.
Police Chiefs from Rwanda, Tanzania, Turkey, Benin and the Irish Prime Minister have all endorsed the Muyenga Model as the best community policing model in the world.
• Creation of public concern on resources for policing eg Donation of land, computers, police booths etc.
Human Resource capacity
Under the wise leadership of H.E. Y.K. Museveni , the Police strength has grown from 3,000 personnel in 1986 to 14,000 personnel in 2005/6 and currently stands at 41,000 out of the targeted 65,000 personnel against the estimated population of 35.4 million, which means that 1 police officer serves 863 people against the UN recommended ratio of 1:500. Over the last three years, UPF has trained 18,174 personnel in areas (refresher courses, leadership and command specialized trainings) all geared towards professionalism.
Two CID personnel were sent to study masters in forensic science and DNA profiling in the UK in an effort to strengthen forensic evidence base investigations.
In the last financial year alone, 388 detectives in crime investigations and analysis, 807 Community Liaison Officers, 1,159 personnel on identification and response to terrorist incidents, 270 middle managers in command and control, 72 officers in marine operations and 80 peer educators on HIV/AIDS officers were trained.
The following CIID Courses will be undertaken in 2013/2014:
• Introduction of 500 PPCs into CIID
• Training 50 Scene of Crime Officers (SOCOs) in Crime Scene management
• Training 25 Officers in Cyber Crime Investigations
• Training 100 Officers in Narcotics Investigations
• Training 50 Officers in Crime Intelligence Analysis
• Training 120 Officers in Collation and Crime Data Management
• Training 100 Officers in Homicide Investigations
In 2006, Uganda Police Force had only four Directorates to run the affairs of the Force, this has improved greatly, the Force now has 20 directorates, namely; Human Resources Management/Administration, Operations, Crime investigations and Intelligence, Interpol and International Relations, Logistics and Engineering, Welfare and Production, Counter Terrorism, Research, Planning and Development, Oil and Gas, Political Commissariat, Information Communication and Technology, Health Services, Traffic and Road Safety, Fire Prevention and Rescue Services, Human Rights and Legal Services, Parliamentary Affairs, Kampala Metropolitan, Special Duties, Field Force Police and Forensic services. With the creation of new directorates, the Force is now able to provide services better to the public.
Equipments and facilities
UPF had 6,284 housing units (863 offices and 5,421 residential units) in 2009 and have since added 502 residential units, 41 stations and posts, 31 Child reception centers, 3 Training Schools (Kabalye, Olilim, Yumbe), Forensic Laboratory, Police Headquarters (CIID Wing), 1,697 Police uniports constructed, 1 canine center/clinic at Nagalama.
By December 2012, a number of achievements were made which included the construction of Police stations and barracks in the following areas: Amuru, Pader, Amuria, Katakwi, Abim, Namasale, Agwata, Amolatar, Nakapiripirit, Aboke, Nyero, Kitgum, Nebbi, Bushenyi, Nagalama Kennels, and Forensics Laboratory.
Since January 2013, the following additional achievements have been made:
– Movement of Police Headquarters to the New CIID Headquarters
– Completion of various Police Stations i.e. Moroto, Amuria, Pader, Maracha, Awach, Mukono
– Completion of various Residential accommodation blocks i.e. Maracha, Awach, Kibuku, Kotido, Moroto
– Ongoing Stations to be completed before end of 2013 i.e Tororo, Butalejja, Kiira, Kaabong, Kotido, Luwero, Nakapiripirit,
– Ongoing Barracks to be completed before end of 2013 i.e Kabale, Rukungiri, Kyenjojo, Kabalye,
– Relocation of personnel on JLOS Land in Naguru to Busunjju.
– Construction of a National Cancer Diagnostic Center at Plot 44, Windsor Crescent, Kololo, Kampala
– Garment Factory on Jinja Road
– Completion of the Canine Clinic at Nagalama
– Construction of Stations in Nateete, Lumino, Bullisa, Manafwa, Yumbe, Koboko
– Construction of Barracks in Mbale, Bududa, Bulisa, Busia, Bukwo, Kabalye
– Construction of 10 Canine units
– Construction of 15 Community Halls based on the Muyenga model
– Renovation of Arua Police barracks is underway.
The following Projects are at planning stages and implementation is expected to commence in the Calendar year 2014:
– New Police Headquarters at Naguru
– New Logistics and Engineering Base in Namanve
– Police Marina at Kigo
– Officers Mess at Naguru
Projects under Justice Law and Order Sectors (JLOS) include constructions of Police Stations in Bundibugyo, Kisoro, Kanugu, Kayunga, Isingiro, and Lamwo.
Justice Law and Order Sector plan for 2013/2014 are Ibanda, Mayuge, Wakiso, Kiboga and Kyenjojo.
JLOS has procured furnitures and equipments for the following stations; Ibanda, Wakiso, Mayuge, Lamwo, Bundibugyo, Isingiro, Kayunga, Kiboga, Kyenjojo, Kibuku and Bulambuli.
UNICEF has been supporting the Child and Family Protection Unit for several years in terms of capacity building. They procured one vehicle for the unit. UNICEF has supported the unit to sensitizes 300 schools on children’s rights, trained Child and Family Protection Officers, Officer in Charge Posts (OCs) on how to handle Children cases.
Enhanced Police presence in Karamoja region by the provision of seven Community policing posts at Rupa, Kalita, Lokopo, Lolacat, Lobalangi, Kaceri and Kanu, 14 motor cycles were procured for the region. Trained 420 Community Liaison Officer by the Karamoja Livelihood Programme (KALIP).
Uganda Police Force has actively participated in sending troops for peace keeping in other foreign countries on the request of the United Nations and African Union. The Force has sent troops to Liberia, Kosovo, Darfur, South Sudan, East Timor and currently Somalia. In all these places Uganda Police personnel have excelled in their work and discipline.
The Uganda Police Fleet Management Division used to be just a mere unit it has been upgraded to the level of a division. It has the strength as below in terms of equipment; in the year 2004 the fleet status was at its lowest as compared today:
• Motor vehicles (1059)
• Marine Vessels (26)
• Motor Cycles (3558)
• Bicycles (1032)
• Donkeys (13)Personnel Welfare
Directorate of Welfare and Production was established and the mandate of the Directorate is to improve the standards of living of personnel and their families socially, economically and politically. Many projects and schemes to address the personnel welfare problem and improve their living standards have been initiated under the Directorate of Welfare and Production. The Police Duty Free scheme is one of such interventions.
A Duty free shop was established to provide the officers with low price items at a factory price. Initially it was based in Kampala but currently decentralized to regions (Arua, Gulu, Lira, Hoima, Mbarara, Masaka).
Exodus Sacco was formed for personnel to access affordable loans. The Sacco has saved over 4 billion shillings in form of members saving and disbursed over one (1) billion shillings as loan.
NAADS Poultry project (Ntinda, Naguru, Nsambya and Fire Brigade HQ)
Food production in Kabalye (64 acres of maize) HEALTH CENTERS AND SERVICES
UPF operates 76 health centers at different levels; [(04) HC IV, (10) HC III and (62) HC II].
They all offer general medical care to outpatients.
03 maternity centers at Nsambya (10 beds), Masaka (5 beds) & Jinja (5 beds).
03 Antenatal centers at Naguru, Mbale & Arua.
ART center at Kibuli (663 clients) and recently rolled out to Masaka, Mbale & Arua.
02 SMC Minor theatres started in 2011 at Kibuli (602 cases) & Masaka (367).
Ophthalmology (Eye services) and Dental Services at Kibuli PTS.
Laboratory services at Kabalye PTS, Arua, Mbale, Mbarara, Masaka, Jinja, Naguru and Nsambya clinics.
UPF has eight (08) Police Surgeons at Mbale, Arua, Gulu and KMP. Of whom 01 is in Somalia (FPU), 01 yet to complete Masters Degree course at Makerere University.
TRANSPORT For Health services
20 Ambulances [For emergency response].
04 Double Cabins.
01 Film Van.
High ways – Iganga, Lugazi, Buwama, Masaka, Mbarara, Luwero, Gulu
Arua, Mityana, Busunju, Katakwi, Mbale (temporarily at
KMP – Katwe, Kawempe, FFP Hqtr, CPS, Fire &Rescue Services headquarters, and Nsambya Police maternity.
Training bases – PTS Kabalye and Entebbe / Kasenyi.
The ambulances have done a great job but the impact is not felt in most areas because they are few.
Health services are delivered with support from government and non-government agencies:
Ministry of Health (Policy guidance, National Health program, training, monitoring & supervision).
National Medical Stores (NMS) (Supplies Medicines and other health supplies including ARVs, based on standardized MoH basic KIT for HC II, HC III, and HC IV. Brand new dental unit).
Democratic Governance and Accountability Program (DGAP-EU Project) -Strengthening laboratory investigations in SGBV cases; 5 microscopes and an assortment of chemicals / reagents.
MOH & CDC – Donated a new PIMA CD4 testing machine.
AMREF – 6 microscopes, one motor cycle, vertical training of laboratory staff.
AIDS Control Program – Uganda Police (ACP-UP) is supported by implementing partners;
a) AMICAALL Uganda (Supports Behavior Change Communication – BCC; HIV Counseling & Testing in seven districts; Moroto, Kotido, Mbale, Gulu, Masaka, Hoima, Kampala).
b) World Vision SPEAR Project (SMC, eMTCT, HCT, Systems strengthening)
c) UNFPA [Systems strengthening – Advocacy, Strategic planning,
Information management and film van].
d) Uganda AIDS Commission through Partnership Fund
(Strengthening coordination committees, support supervision).
Naguru Poly Clinic (Mini Hospital)
Partnership between Police and Iranian Govt (Red Crescent).
Principle: Red Crescent to construct the facility, managed by both Red Crescent & Police and later handed over to Police.
1st phase started about 1 year ago, but project moving slowly due to some challenges.
Construction is at roofing stage and the initial consignment of equipment is in Mombasa due for clearance.
20 bed facility with various medical units (dental, maternity, general out patients, eye / ear care, X-ray, Ultra Sound, laboratories, pharmacy, minor theatre, ambulance service and administrative offices.
Beneficiaries: Police community and the general public.
2nd phase will be an expansion to a 500 bed fully fledged hospital.
1st phase (only diagnostic and research centre).
Principle: Police to construct the facility, investor to equip it, Police to benefit from subsidized services and proceeds.
20-bed multi-specialty day care centre located at Kololo (former Counter Terrorism headquarters).
Services; i. cancer diagnosis (upper and lower endoscopy, broncoscopy, mammography, basic ultra sound). ii referral for appropriate treatment, iii. cancer education, iv. cancer research.
Other services will include; pharmacy, ambulance service, provision of various supplies / consumables and installation of essential medical gadgets.
We are looking at putting up a new structure that is purpose made to be a cancer centre.
Registration of the facility and foreign specialists by the medical council will then follow.
Appointment of support staff and paramedical staff (both foreign and local) by the specialist and Police management.
2nd phase (larger hospital with cancer treatment)
Building of a modern facility with big admissions (land has been identified at Nsambya).
Advanced facility for surgery and radiotherapy, MRI and CT Scan
Installation of advanced diagnostic radiology equipment.
Training of foreign and national surgeons will be another important activity.